In the days following 9/11, many citizens wondered aloud if their local public safety agencies were prepared to protect them if their communities were attacked. Unfortunately, until recently, the answer to that question was often, No. Even with the current interest in homeland security, there still is no clear blueprint for creating a Weapons of Mass Destruction unit. But many departments are forging ahead and making the rules. This article should help get you started in joining the ranks of agencies armed with the skills to respond to WMD attacks.
Why a WMD Unit?
A WMD unit trains together and is tasked with responding to, assessing, and resolving the crisis portion of any Weapons of Mass Destruction event. Doing so is beyond the ability of most special units, much less patrol. This is not to slight these groups. The knowledge necessary to successfully resolve such an incident is not yet widely available.
Responders to a WMD incident must be capable of assessing any agents or products disseminated as well as how rapidly they are spreading, and be equipped to contain and neutralize them. These tasks require an above-average knowledge of chemistry, meteorology, physics, and tactics, not to mention immediate access to some fairly specialized equipment. HazMat is not enough.
While some of the units at an agency may already have some pieces of the puzzle necessary to respond to WMD disasters, no current units have all of the necessary tools.
Bomb Squads are excellent at hazard prediction, awareness of chemical agents, and establishing deployment methods. But they have very little gear for mass decontamination or a sustained event. HazMat teams are excellent at decontamination and use of PPE (the specialized protective ensembles the team members wear), but they usually don't have the necessary diagnostic gear, specialized knowledge of WMD agents, or expertise in deployment methods.
Jim Schneden, who supervises the Tucson (Ariz.) Police Department bomb squad, which trains with the HazMat unit at the Tucson Fire Department, believes a WMD unit serves an important, specialized function that cannot be handled by a different type of unit.
"For bomb guys in a WMD response," Schneden says, "time is of the essence-get in, get out, figure it out, mitigate the problem. HazMat types are cautious and will take as much time as necessary to figure out what they have."
WMD events usually can't wait that long.
Choose a Model
A successful WMD unit must be comprised of people who are dedicated to the task at hand. But that doesn't mean team members' time must be devoted solely to the unit. Your agency might not have the funds or the need for a full-time WMD unit. A better approach might be to gather a group of officers that can be called on to function as a unit when needed for training or a major incident, but who have other assignments most of the time. A countywide WMD unit that draws members from various agencies when necessary might be more appropriate and financially feasible for your jurisdiction and surrounding communities. Choose whatever works best for your area. The important thing is that an effective team be available should a WMD event occur.
While not a simple path, the route to building your own unit is fairly straightforward.
Gather the Masses
First, if the mandate to spin up a unit didn't come from your agency's administration, take time to secure top officials' blessings. (After all, without them, no project will fly anyway, right?) You may have to reassure them that it won't drain the agency's coffers (it shouldn't). With today's emphasis on homeland security, if you can secure funding, it shouldn't require a lot of arm twisting to get a WMDU project green-lighted.
After getting the OK, start finding people willing to help you start a WMD unit. They don't even need to all be from inside your department. If your local fire department is responsible for HazMat, it's an excellent resource. Your emergency management people are another. Also, tap emergency medical services personnel for insight into necessary preparation for a WMD unit. Every incident will have a severe medical impact.
All emergency response agencies will be called to task in the event of a crisis, and many may have already come up with solutions to problems you anticipate facing during an incident. Collaborating now may save a lot of duplication and overlapping later.
Cover Your Bases
Once you have gathered your planning group together, start assessing your needs. Some of the first things you will need include a standard operating procedure (SOP), and interagency agreements with all affected agencies. These are critical, because they not only define your role and reduce your liability, but they also help avoid the incessant turf fighting and hurt feelings that abound during large incidents.
While it sounds like a large order, in actuality, most agencies will be happy to relinquish control of a WMD event to a team established for that purpose. It's easier for them to pass the responsibility on to someone else than to worry about dealing with the consequences of a mishandled event. Make sure that all agencies stay informed during an incident and that they have roles to fill in the staging area, and you'll be fine.
Many of the things you will hash out with planning group members will involve some very serious legal and regulatory issues. Having HazMat and your state's Emergency Management Agency (EMA) on board will help you navigate the murky waters of OSHA and EPA. Other issues to consider include paid training time, overtime for incidents and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), ICS (Federal Unified Incident Command System), mandatory stress debriefings, and personnel reliability.
There are many questions to answer when planning the start of a WMD unit: What about the media? How much access should you allow them? What do you do with contaminated people who threaten to break the Contamination Control Line? Who can you call for more personnel if your unit becomes overwhelmed? Who will loan you portable toilets? Who will feed you? All excellent questions, best answered in an annex of your SOP prior to an incident.
Once you've gotten things ironed out and approved, you need to select team members and get them trained. Some of the people from your planning group may not have the time or energy to expend on operations. Others may be attached to units that will have other responsibilities during a WMD event.
The people you select should be healthy, intelligent, have few collateral duties, and be willing to train. While it may sound simple to find qualified individuals, not everyone meets all of the above criteria.
To thoroughly check a prospective member's health, you'll need to require several tests. Claustrophobia is a common debilitating issue, so it is prudent to have candidates dress out in a full WMD ensemble to see on the front end if they can tolerate the close-fitting, restrictive gear. Baseline medical screens are a legal requirement, as are psychological tests for any prospective member that hails from an agency without such a requirement. Finite mental cracks routinely magnify to major fissures during incidents, so requiring a psychological screening is as much for the benefit of the prospective member as it is necessary for protecting your agency's liability.[PAGEBREAK]
Train the Troops
Currently, there is no national standard for WMD responders. However, most well-trained responders have at least a Hazardous Materials Technician certification under their belts. Some have HAZWOPR, a certification received after successfully completing a civilian training block for individuals tasked with remediating hazardous waste sites. COBRA training courses, which are funded through federal grants, are free to police departments. You can take them at your local EMA office. However, they are often backlogged.
If you can't afford travel expenses to go to training classes, let them come to you. Many training courses are available over the Internet. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offers a variety of free online courses on its Website. To learn how to retrieve evidence and information following an explosion, you may want to attend the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology post-blast training. You can peruse a list of training courses various agencies offer by visiting the Office of Justice Programs Website.
Specialized training can also be had from your local bomb squads, military units, and the Department of Energy. The majority of this training is tuition-free.
Lt. Sam Morales, a supervisor with the Los Angeles County Police WMD Unit, the first such team in the L. A. area, says, "All in all, [our] training has consisted of numerous hours and agencies." In addition to the above listed ideas, Morales' unit even went so far as to design a firearms qualification course meant to be conducted while fully dressed out in protective gear.
While your troops are getting the mental tools they'll need to be able to safely resolve an incident and save lives, now is a good time to start accumulating the physical tools they'll need to have. This is a terrible area to skimp on, and with the availability of Federal aid for these items, let's hope you won't have to.
Necessary equipment runs the gamut from PPE (gloves, booties, suits, respirators), to team gear (detection systems, decontamination systems, communications systems), to simple items such as water coolers and whiteboards.
How are you going to get all this stuff there? Where will it be deployed if the weather turns inclement? This is an excellent time to pick the brains of the local HazMat team. Its members will already have a wealth of lessons learned on the topic, and can help you decide what you need, how many you need, and how to store and move them. Just keep in mind that, ultimately, this isn't a HazMat event, but a WMD one. Being able to rapidly identify yourselves in a near-riot situation will be critical.
Make sure you cover as many contingencies as possible. Will you have all the equipment available to decontaminate your duty gear safely? Will your team have everything necessary when the time comes? One personal lesson learned is the importance of chiller suits. While they may sound like an extravagance, consider the heat load of wearing a Nomex III jumpsuit, bullet-resistant vest, level A or B WMD ensemble, and an identification vest, all the while remaining very physically active.
Once you get your shopping list, start applying for grants so you can purchase these items. Coordinate requests with your agency point of contact for grant work, as well as the EMA.
The grants you'll want to consider first are called one shots, meaning they will cover 100 percent and do not have to be paid back. Other grants, called formula grants, require your unit to pay a percentage of the total.
The Department of Defense has a low-cost or no-cost shopping center called the Defense Reutilization Management Office. It is an excellent resource for everything from tents to trucks. There are restrictions on how they will allow their items to be deployed, but the creative unit leader will find ways to embrace them and still get the job done.
Don't forget to seek community support. Your local stores may be willing to donate kiddie pools, paper towels, sports drinks, and many other supplies your team will need. Peruse the phone book. You may be surprised at the specialty businesses in your own backyard. Publishing a 3x10-inch advertisement in your agency's newsletter in exchange for a trailer company's donated $15,000 trailer is a small sacrifice.
Don't Stop Training
After going through all the steps to start a WMD unit, many initially successful projects fail due to a lack of training or followthrough. This is because many commanders feel that full-scale exercises are too complicated to conduct. But training, especially on a large scale, doesn't have to be difficult.
Delegate portions of the training evolution to your unit, such as locating roleplayers and sites. Recruit other agencies' administrators to serve as referees and safety people. Ask your EMA to critique. Limit your performance objectives, and concentrate more on working as a cohesive team than on nitpicking.
When the time and space necessary for a large-scale training session aren't available, break your training up into modules. One month, focus on PPE; the next, survey gear. As an added benefit to this form of training, your troops won't become bored-or worse, complacent. Many of the skills necessary to safely negotiate a WMD event are perishable, so train as often as your members' schedule will allow, even if you just get together to sandtable.
Hopefully, the path to a working WMD Unit in your jurisdiction will be an ultimately successful one. Just remember to network and set realistic goals, and the rest will follow.
WMD Website Listings:
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology post-blast training:
Office of Justice Programs agency training:
Defense Reutilization Management Office:
Shawn Hughes is a 12-year veteran police officer and bomb technician. He is the WMD and explosives lead instructor for the company Tactical Response.