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Fourth Amendment

Point of Law: Suspicious Movements Can Lead to a Reasonable Frisk

Officers can go off of reasonable suspicion To enact a seizure and Terry frisk.

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Point of Law: Recent Rulings on Exigency

A 2021 case involving an Iowa police department reveals how the Supreme Court is refining the exigent circumstances exemption.

Point of Law: Warrantless Search Incident to Arrest

When a convicted felon fled from a traffic stop, officers pursued and arrested him. Then they searched his vehicle and his personal effects.

Understanding Fourth Amendment Seizure

Can it be a seizure when a person isn’t “seized?”

Point of Law: When is an Officer-Involved Shooting a Seizure?

The Supreme Court recently ruled on a New Mexico case that established when a use of force constitutes a Fourth Amendment seizure.

Supreme Court Restricts Warrantless Searches for "Community Caretaking"

While Cady recognized that police perform “many civil tasks” in modern society, the “recognition that these tasks exist” is not “an open-ended license to perform them anywhere,” Justice Clarence Thomas wrote in the majority opinion.

Recalling Police Use of Force Law—Constitutional Law Crate, Part 1

Attorney Missy O'Linn explains her "Constitutional Law Crate," which she created as 11 flash cards assembled into a cube, or crate, to give officers a way to remember the most imperative information when testifying in court, such as the three levels of force and Graham v. Connor.

Community Caretaking Searches

Few of the safeguards granted to individuals in the United States under the Bill of Rights are more vociferously defended than the Fourth Amendment guaranteeing protection against unreasonable searches and seizures. This is especially the case where the entry of private residences is concerned.

Flight and the Fourth Amendment

Sometimes, people run when they see you coming. May you chase them? If you do, does that amount to a "show of authority" constituting a detention, requiring reasonable suspicion?

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Unlawfully Prolonged Traffic Stop

Is it OK under the Fourth Amendment to turn a traffic stop into a criminal investigation? Of course it is, provided the justification for the additional investigation is developed during the reasonable duration of the traffic stop—not after.

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