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Are We Teaching Cops To Run?

Seeking cover during a gunfight is not always the best option. So why do trainers insist that it is?

August 19, 2011  |  by Dave Bahde

I recognize there are a ton of tactical gurus out there that will disagree with me about pressing the fight. But I'm OK with that.

This is not about the tactic as much as the decision-making process. The tactic that should never change is to win the fight, by whatever means you can. The sooner it ends the better it is for you and everyone else.

My argument is about what to do when the fight starts. There are opinions ad nauseum as to what to do before or after. This is about what to do when you are in a gunfight, not what happens before or after. The sooner it is over the more likely you will have the time to have that discussion with all the tactical gurus you can find.

Case By Case

Don't get me wrong. It is not inappropriate for you to be trained to seek cover. I contend it is inappropriate for you to be trained to "always" seek cover, regardless of the situation.

If a pattern is established in your training that as soon as the bullets fly you should "run to cover" we are not training you to win, we are training you to run. Sometimes running to cover may do nothing more than get you shot in the back.

Sometimes the best way to survive is to end the fight and that may not involve moving to cover. Also, running away to fight another day just may get your partner killed next week or 10 minutes later. Someone willing to kill cops today will be willing to do so tomorrow or next week so you need to stop that from occurring. That may be as simple as containing them, it may be as nasty as killing them, but either way the problem needs solving now and you are the one to do it.

Sometimes it just flat out sucks to be a cop. You are always behind the curve. That means you may be close to the threat, you may not. There may be cover, there may not be. You may have time, you may not. It may be more lethal to go to cover than to advance on the threat. If it were always the same it would be easy, but it isn't. To quote Clint Smith, "A gunfight is not what you make it, it simply is what it is."

How well you are able to deliberately act once that fight starts will determine how it ends. Training you to win gunfights means you need to be taught to act and you need to be given the tools necessary to act given any situation.

Is it inappropriate for you to be trained to seek cover to reload? Of course not. But I think your trainers are presenting you with problems if they train you to "always" seek cover to reload.

And don't use shooting competitions for examples of how you should be trained to shoot in combat. Shooting competitions are games. They have rules, and you can make all the rules you want. That is great, I play the games too and love them. But it is important to recognize that shooting competitions are games where you test your skills and have fun. Not all of them are realistic, nor are the tactics necessarily viable in a fight.

Law enforcement training is about gunfighting, not games. There is no timer, no rules, and the winner is breathing and the loser often is not. I prefer to win the fight and discuss tactics afterwards.

If you have been trained to "always" seek cover when the bullets fly, that is what you are always going to do. You need to train to win, and that may mean moving to cover, or it may not.

You also need to be able to reload under fire, with or without cover. When you are out of bullets in a gunfight, you have to reload your gun. You need to know how to do that, and fast. You may have to reload while moving to cover or while moving toward the threat. You may also have to reload in your car, under your car, or behind a tree.

You do not get to pick where the fight is going to be; you don't even get to decide whether to join the fight. All you get to do is win it, lose it, or set up a draw once it starts. You don't know until you are in the fight what will work.

This is why it is so critical that your firearms instructors take their jobs seriously. Teaching you the skills needed to win a gunfight is not simple, and it requires great effort and thought. Your instructors cannot simply teach "one thing" and "one mindset." They have to prepare you to win a fight and that means hard work for you, and even harder work for them.

Dangerous Patterns

Over the last few years a dangerous trend has emerged. The focus on firearms training in law enforcement is often about the latest equipment, or latest tactic. These should enhance your abilities, not determine your decisions.

Tools and tactics should allow you to use your mind to apply what is needed to survive. Scientific studies of late make this clear. It is the ability to observe the problem and act that is critical. It is not the tactic but the ability to apply it that is critical.

On its own a tactic may or may not be a problem, but if it "patterns" the wrong mindset, it can be. If you train that "all gunfights occur at seven yards," you are not prepared to win when that fight occurs at 25 yards. If you are trained to "always move to cover," you are not prepared to win when no such option exists. When you are trained to always "create distance," you are not prepared to fight at a close distance to the threat when that is what is required.

Sometimes the best thing to do in training is break the pattern and think. Clearly you must learn how to shoot, what to shoot, and when to shoot. You must also know how to apply those things in a real gunfight. Once the shooting starts your training must have prepared you to win the gunfight, otherwise all the rest is meaningless.

Lt. Dave Bahde retired from the South Salt Lake (Utah) PD and is an experienced SWAT team leader and firearms instructor.

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Tags: Firearms Training, Gun Battles, Officer Involved Shootings


Comments (11)

Displaying 1 - 11 of 11

01powell @ 8/21/2011 7:57 AM

Very good artical. We train to go toward the fight here. And as a SWAT team member we train to advance toward the fight everytime we train. All Officer's should do the same. We are here to finish the fight and go home to our beloved families at the end of our shift.

TripWire @ 8/23/2011 6:39 PM

Yeah, you're on the SWAT team. Right. I'm calling you out, what city?

TripWire @ 8/23/2011 6:40 PM

Yeah, you're on the SWAT team. Right. I'm calling you out, what city?

Morning Eagle @ 8/24/2011 2:30 AM

This is a very good article that makes many appropriate observations about training to win. We often hear the phrase "My training just kicked in and saved my butt." True. When the SHTF we fight as we have trained, especially in the initial reaction. That old axiom about the best defense being a good offense (preferably a swift, overwhelmingly violent one) has lost no validity over the years. Stay calm, cool, collected and thinking. Even if hit, focus on eliminating the threat, having been trained (hopefully) to shoot accurately, now is the time to do it without hesitation. Spraying and praying lots of bullets makes a lot of noise but is usually ineffective except maybe to keep their heads down. Plus, how many dash cam videos have we seen when an officer gets shot at the first reaction is to turn their back to the threat while running, usually back to the patrol vehicle, and shouting in near panic into their portable mic for back-up, often not even drawing their own weapon until back to the vehicle. Failure to immediately return fire is a good way to get executed while trying to gain some kind of cover. A real gunfight is not a carefully choreographed event, it usually begins with little or no warning and is chaotic, violent, loud, and your attacker is not inhibited by any concerns for fair play or what the law says he can or cannot do. Above all, stay calm, cool, collected, and keep thinking. Even if you are hit, stay in the fight until the BG(s) are dead or have at least stopped shooting at you. Preferably dead but that is just my own opinion.

Anthony Emrich @ 8/24/2011 4:52 AM

This is a good article. I will share this with other Officers. Thanks for taking the time to post it. If it happens, I will win!

Chuck Haggard @ 8/24/2011 1:53 PM

Some VERY experienced instructors will advocate taking the fight to the bad guy, as in the SWAT type Groucho walk advance on the threat-shooting on the move tactic.

In the past this was supposed to be a "SWAT only" tactic, but this has also been used too many times on the street in spontaneous street OISs that officers should be taught the tactic.

Taking the fight to the bad guy is not what he expects, and it most often really jacks up their OODA loop.

The Pete Solis shooting incident is a great example of this sort of thing.

Tripwire,

Your comments are not at all useful to this discussion.

Det. Sgt. M.C. Williams @ 8/24/2011 8:27 PM

Excellent article. Will post link to same in this week's newsletter (will be posted on www.TheCenturionLawEnforcementMinistry.org). Yes -- we are called to run TO the battle and not away. Well done.

BMan145 @ 8/30/2011 11:55 AM

Excellent article. The department I came from uses the "take the fight to the bad guy" mind set. Cover is a good thing but the MOST important tool in a gun fight will be the ABSOLUTE determination to END THE THREAT! Putting steel ON TARGET can only happen with a consistent history of proper gun fight training. I'm not talking about marksmanship...anyone can be taught to punch tight groups. It's altogether another matter to have the Warrior Mindset! Let's be Sheepdogs...not Sheep!!

Ima Leprechaun @ 8/30/2011 5:28 PM

From the mid 1970's onward basic recruits have been taught to retreat to a better position to assess the situation if they are caught off guard and told it is a proper response for suvivability. So tactical teaching has been around for quite a while. But Police Administrations take ANY retreat as "cowardice" and will use it in diciplinary actions against the officer, if he lives. So the officer is caught between proper training and improper leadership which in turn doesn't help the officer one bit. I am for survivability and a survivable response from a position of strength and the heck with what the administration thinks they aren't being shot at. Charging down the guns with nobody knowing where you are and no plan to survive, you are just plain stupid.

Det. Sgt. M.C. Williams @ 8/31/2011 8:00 PM

Ima Lep: They didn't teach us to "retreat" in my academy and I don't teach that when I instruct. Yes, we teach cover, concealment and good tactics but we MUST NOT sit around "waiting" or overtly running away when others are in danger. We take the fight to them...it's our call and our charge. We are God's servant-warriors -- His ministers for good and a terror against evil (Romans 13:1-7), not sheep trying to get away from the wolf. Just sayin!

Charles @ 10/31/2012 5:58 AM

Infantry training 101: Do not charge straight ahead into oncoming gunfire. The first bullets to leave a barrel have the right of way. You will never see Marines running towards bullets and shooting back at the same time. Bounding over watch/ fire team rushes are used to move from cover to cover into a better tactical position to gain the advantage.

I understand a lot of situations put us solo, and we can't single- handed provide a base of fire, rear security, cover the bad guy's egress route, and assault from a flank. That is, however, the reason you need a 3:1 or 4:1 (depending on your rear security concerns) ratio to effectively assault an embedded position.

What's the difference between getting shot in the front of the vest or the back? How about the head? You don't get any less shot either way.

Can I shoot and move straight forward? Sure I can. Why would I want to when I can shoot and move laterally to cover or forward diagonally? Make the bad guy have to at least work for a hit. If i go forward, his target only gets bigger and he has the advantage of being stationary while Im moving and shooting. If im moving sideways, he at least has to lead me some. I could also prone or supine and return fire until I win or the other participant disengages and removes himself from my threat. Make myself a smaller target if I'm going to shoot stationary.

You should not turn around and move away unless there is no other option. Even then, you can turn and move away diagonally while returning fire one-handed. Never ever try to walk backwards while facing forward.

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